Titus and the Shaping of Early Christian Identity

I have just read a helpful essay recently published by Jermo Van Nes, titled “Doing Good Deeds: Titus and the Shaping of Early Christian Identity.” The essay appears in the recent book, Drawing and Transcending Boundaries in the New Testament and Early Christianity, ed. Jacobus Kok, Martin Webber, Jermo van Nes (Lit Verlag, 2019). My review of Van Nes’s monograph was recently posted here, and this essay is further helpful work from him.

In this essay Van Nes examines vocabulary in the letter to Titus which denotes insider and outsider status arguing for more variety of groups than in Trebilco’s work. He helpfully points out that the sharp language used for distinguishing the church from outsiders does not sit well with the common idea that the letter presents an accomodationist ethic which intends to alleviate social tensions and make the church more at home in the Greco-Roman world. Rather, the letter marks a sharp division between Cretan believers and the false teachers and unbelievers. The aim of the letter, then, is “to further God’s mission by shaping the Cretan Christian community into a people who in word and deed expose Cretan society to genuine Christian witness” (43).

Reviews

Available to review:

Students of the Pastorals who are members of SBL may be interested in four volumes on the letters currently available for review at RBL:

  • Gerald Bray, The Pastoral Epistles (ITC; London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark, 2019).
  • Nathan Nzyoka Joshua, Benefaction and Patronage in Leadership: A Socio-Historical Exegesis of the Pastoral Epistles (Carlisle, Cumbria, UK: Langham, 2018).
  • Jermo van Nes, Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum (Linguistic Biblical Studies 16; Leiden: Brill, 2018).
  • Robert Yarbrough, The Letters to Timothy and Titus (PNTC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2018).

Published reviews:

Andreas J. Köstenberger’s Commentary on 1‒2 Timothy & Titus (Biblical Theology for Christian Proclamation; Nashville, TN: Holman, 2017) has been reviewed by Michael Scott Robertson at RBL (SBL member access only).

Larry J. Perkins, The Pastoral Letters: A Handbook on the Greek Text (BHGNT; Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017), has been reviewed by Paul Foster in ExpTim 130.9 (2019): 426.

Dillon Thornton’s Hostility in the House of God: An Investigation of the Opponents in 1 and 2 Timothy (BBRSup 15; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2016) has been reviewed by Craig D. Saunders, Religious Studies Review 45.1 (2019), 78.

Jermo van Nes’s Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum (Linguistic Biblical Studies 16; Leiden: Brill, 2018) has garnered a couple of reviews:

  • Ray van Neste in JETS 62.2 (2019): 411-12. (pdf)
  • Benjamin Laird in WTJ 81.1 (2019): 167-69.

Robert Yarbrough, The Letters to Timothy and Titus (PNTC; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2018), has been reviewed by Mi Young Sydney Park, Presbyterion 45.1 (2019): 172-73.

The Pastorals at ETS 2019

The annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society will be held on Nov 20-22 in San Diego. We’ve collected here sessions that may be of interest to researchers in the Pastorals.

The section devoted to the study of the Pastorals has four sessions scheduled on Nov 20, 9 AM to 12:10 PM:

  • David I. Yoon, “The Register of Paul in 1 Timothy: Why the Pastorals May Differ in ‘Style’ than the Hauptbrief.”
  • Stanley E. Porter: “Arguments for and against Pauline Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles: Recent Proposals.”
  • Ran Van Neste, “Ethics in Titus.”
  • John Percival: “Salvation History in Six Lines: Reading 1 Timothy 3:16b as an Interconnected Whole.”

Note also:

  • Craig Keener, “Greek versus Jewish Conceptions of Inspiration, with Attendant Implications for Authority, and 2 Timothy 3:16.” (Nov 21, 5:30 PM)
  • David Warren, “A Husband of One Wife” (1 Tim 3:2, 12; Titus 1:6): What Does It Mean?” (Nov 22, 3:30 PM)

The Pastorals in JSNT 41.5 Booklist 2019

Each year, the Journal for the Study of the New Testament puts out an issue giving recently-published books in categories related to NT studies. The Pastoral Epistles are a distinct category in the issue each year, and usually garner two or three entries. This year, JSNT highlighted three volumes, each with two-paragraph annotations:

Külling, Heinz. Mann und Frau, Eltern und Kindern als Bewohner ihres Hauses in den Pastoralbriefen. Zurich: Theologischer Verlag Zurich, 2017. (annotation by Peter Oakes)

Perkins, Larry J. The Pastoral Letters: A Handbook on the Greek Text. Baylor Handbook on the Greek New Testament. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2017. (annotation by Tom de Bruin)

Van Nes, Jermo. Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum. Linguistic Biblical Studies 16. Leiden: Brill, 2018. (annotation by Dirk Jongkind)

The Spiritual Depository of Paul the Apostle: (Modern-)Greek-Language Edited Volume on the Pastorals

Volumes of collections of essays which are entirely about the Pastorals (in whole or in part) are not common. Until a year or so ago, I was only aware of six:

Bieringer, Reimund, ed. 2 Timothy and Titus Reconsidered / Der 2. Timotheus- und der Titusbrief in neuem Licht. Colloquium Oecumenicum Paulinum 20. Leuven: Peeters, 2018.

de Virgilio, Giuseppe, ed. Il deposito della fede: Timoteo e Tito. Supplementi alla Rivista Biblica 34. Bologna: Dehoniane, 1998.

Donfried, Karl Paul, ed. 1 Timothy Reconsidered. Colloquium Oecumenicum Paulinum 18. Leuven: Peeters, 2008.

Köstenberger, Andreas J. and Terry L. Wilder, eds. Entrusted with the Gospel: Paul’s Theology in the Pastoral Epistles. Nashville: B&H, 2010.

Köstenberger, Andreas J. and Thomas R. Schreiner, eds. Women in the Church: An Interpretation and Application of 1 Timothy 2:9–15. 3rd ed. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2016.

Weidemann, Hans-Ulrich, and Wilfried Eisele, eds. Ein Meisterschüler: Titus und sein Brief. Michael Theobald zum 60. Gerburtstag. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 214. Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2008.

I was pleased to discover another, a privately printed volume of scholarly presentations from an academic conference on the Pastorals held in Thessaloniki in 2003: Ἡ πνευματική παρακαταθήκη τοῦ Ἀποστόλου Παύλου. Ποιμαντικές Ἐπιστολές [The Spiritual Depository of Paul the Apostle: Pastoral Epistles]. Εἰσηγήσεις ΙΑ´ Συνάξεως Ὀρθοδόξων Βιβλικῶν Θεολόγων: Λευκάδα 25–28 Σεπτεμβρίου 2003 (Thessaloniki: privately published, 2004). A couple of the essays are in English, but most are in Modern Greek (though a number of those have English-language summaries included). The essays are all written by authors who are Orthodox, though not all of them are self-consciously treating the letters from that perspective.

My profound thanks goes to Christos Karakolis, without whose help I would not have been able to obtain this work. Christos is a professor of New Testament at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, and has an essay included in the volume. He graciously provided me a copy of the volume, and assisted with the English translation of the table of contents.

I provide below a list of the essays included in the volume, most of which are well-nigh impossible to obtain through standard channels. Though it would be inappropriate for me to post the entire volume online, researchers in the Pastorals may obtain specific essays on a personal basis for research purposes; email me at chuckbumgardner at gmail.com with your request.

__________________

Agouridis, Savvas (Σαββας Αγουριδης). “Η φύση της αίρεσης που καταπολεμούν οι ποιμαντικές επιστολές [The nature of the sect fought by the Pastoral Epistles].” Pages 31–40.

Atmatzidis, Charalampos (Ατματζιδης, Χαραλαμπος). “Οι ηθικές προτροπές για τον πλούτο και τους πλουσίους στο Α’ Τιμ. 6 και η Καινοδιαθηκική ηθική [The ethical exhortations regarding wealth and the wealthy in 1 Tim. 6 and the ethics of the New Testament].” Pages 41–84. [English-language summary on p. 84]

Vassiliadis, Petros (Βασιλειαδης, Πετρος). “Μετανεωτερικότητα, σταυρική θεολογία και οι συνέπειές τους για τις ποιμαντικές επιστολές [Postmodernity, theologia crucis, and their consequences for the Pastoral Epistles].” Pages 85–100. [English-language summary on pp. 99-100]

Galanis, Ioannis (Γαλανης, Ιωαννης). “Η χρήση των ποιμαντικών επιστολών στα έργα των εκκλησιαστικών συγγραφέων της ανατολικής εκκλησίας [The use of the Pastoral Epistles in the works of ecclesiastical writers in the Eastern Church].” Pages 101–12.

Galitis, Georgios A. (Γαλιτης, Γεωργιος). “Οι ποιμαντικές επιστολές στη σύγχρονη έρευνα [The Pastoral Epistles in modern research].” Pages 113–30.

Despotis, Sotirios (Δεσποτης, Σωτηριος). “Η Χριστολογία των Ποιμαντικών Επιστολών [The Christology of the Pastoral Epistles].” Pages 131–50. [English-language summary on pp. 148–49]

Doikos, Damianos (Δοϊκος, Δαμιανος). “‘Χήρας τίμα τάς όντως χήρας’ (Α’Τιμ.5,3-16).” Pages 151–62.

Ioannidis, Thomas (Ιωαννιδης, Θωμας). “Οι ύστεροι καιροί και οι έσχατες ημέρες στις Α’ και Β’ προς Τιμόθεον επιστολές [The end of all times and the last days in the First and Second Epistles to Timothy].” Pages 163–92. [English-language summary on pp. 189–91]

Karavidopoulos, Johannes (Καραβιδοπουλος, Ιωαννης). “Η σωτηριολογία των ποιμαντικών επιστολώ [The soteriology of the Pastoral Epistles].” Pages 193–204. [English-language summary on p. 203]

Karakolis, Christos (Καρακολης, Χρηστος). “‘Λέγοντες την ανάστασιν ήδη γεγονέναι’ (Β΄ Τιμ. 2,18): Ερμηνευτική, συγκριτική και θεολογική θεώρηση μιας εσχατολογικής παρεκτροπής [‘Saying that the resurrection has already happened’ (2 Timothy 2:18): Exegetical, comparative and theological view of an eschatological deviation].” Pages 205–24.

Kirov, Dimitar Popmarinov. “Godlessness according to 2 Timothy 3.1–9 and Ps. 13(14). Some biblical and theological attitudes in the light of the situation in a postcommunist country.” Pages 225–40. [Greek-language summary on pp. 238–40]

Koltsiou-Nikita, Anna (Κόλτσιου-Νικήτα, Άννα). “To ‘κάτοπτρον επισκόπου’ στις ποιμαντικές επιστολές και το γραμματειακό του πλαίσιο [The ‘mirror of the bishop’ in the Pastoral Epistles and its literary context].” Pages 241–64. [German-language summary on p. 264]

Mihoc, Vasile. “The Mission in the Pastoral Letters.” Pages 265–86. [Greek-language summary on pp. 284–85]

Nikolakopoulos, Constantine (Νικολακοπουλος, Κωνσταντινος). “Επόψεις της ‘Παυλείου’ ρητορικής στις δυο προς Τιμόθεον επιστολές [Aspects of ‘Pauline’ rhetoric in the two letters to Timothy].” Pages 287–304

Papademetriou, Kyriakoula (Παπαδημητριου, Κυρiακουλα). “Η σημασιολογία της λ. υγιαίνω στις ποιμαντικές επιστολές [The semantics of the word υγιαίνω in the Pastoral Epistles].” Pages 305–34. [English-language summary on p. 333]

Paparnakis, Athanasios (Παπαρνακης, Αθανασιος). “‘’Από βρέφους τά ιερά γράμματα οίδας’ (Β’ Τιμ. 3,15). Η θρησκευτική αγωγή του παιδιού στον ιουδαϊσμ [‘From childhood you have been acquainted with the sacred writings’ (2 Tim 3:15). Religious education of children in Judaism].” Pages 335–60. [English-language summary on p. 360]

Sakkos, Stergios N. (Σακκος, Στεργιος Ν.). “Ενα εκκλησιαστικο αξιωμα για τη γυναικα (Α’ Τιμ. 5,3–16) [An ecclesiastical office for women (1 Tim 5:3–16)].” Pages 361–85.

Merz contra Winter

Among the many literary accomplishments of Bruce Winter, onetime warden of Tyndale House and presently professor emeritus at Queensland Theological College, is his engagement of the connection between the Pastorals and their Greco-Roman cultural context. Published works in this regard include:

“The ‘New’ Roman Wife and 1 Timothy 2:9–15: The Search for a Sitz im Leben.” Tyndale Bulletin 51.2 (2000): 285–94.

Providentia for the Widows of 1 Timothy 5.3–16.” Tyndale Bulletin 39 (1988): 83–99.

Roman Wives, Roman Widows: The Appearance of New Women and the Pauline Communities. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. [esp. pp. 97–169 on 1 Tim 2:9–15; 5:11–15; Titus 2:3–5]

“You Were What You Wore in Roman Law: Deciphering the Dress Codes of 1 Timothy 2:9–15.” SBL Forum, n.p. Online.

In Roman Wives, Roman Widows (see, e.g., this review for a general summary), Winter sets forth his understanding of the “new woman” in the Greco-Roman context of the NT, making application to Pauline passages such as 1 Tim 2:9-15 and 1 Tim 5:3-16. As a matter of definition, “The ‘new’ wife or widow in the late Roman Republic and early Empire was the one whose social life was reported to have been pursued at the expense of family responsibilities that included the complex running of households” (5). Winter lays out literary evidence from “(a) the views of contemporary writers covering the late Republic and the early second century A.D.; (b) those of the poets and playwrights; (c) and the legal moves of Augustus where he specifically legislates against this new phenomenon in the late Republican period and the early Empire” (22). He finds that this evidence supports “new mores” of the time which had implications for the social roles of women and “in some cases, endorsed [the ‘new woman’s] illicit sexual liaisons with younger, single men” (3). The “new woman” was characterized by provocative clothing and a loose lifestyle, in contrast with properly modest wives and widows.

Winter’s work has been widely engaged. It plays a significant role, for instance, in Towner’s NICNT commentary on the Pastorals. It has not been, however, uncontroversial. To that end, I point our readership to a just-published, and rather severe, critique: Annette Merz, “‘New’ Woman? Bruce W. Winters These und ihre Rezeption in der exegetischen Diskussion kritisch beleuchtet [Bruce W. Winter’s thesis and its reception in the exegetical discussion critically examined],” in Frauen im antiken Judentum und frühen Christentum (ed. Jörg Frey and Nicole Rupschus; WUNT 2/489; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019), 209-34. Merz has posted a teaser on Academia, providing her faculty email address (a.b.merz@pthu.nl) for readers to obtain a copy of the entire essay.

In her lengthy discussion, Merz contends that Winter reads the ancient evidence too uncritically; appropriates modern historians too selectively and feminist scholarship too rarely; and unduly expands a limited phenomenon of antiquity beyond historically verifiable chronological and geographical bounds. She considers his overall thesis “dubious” (“dubiose,” p. 231), indeed, an “evangelical research-myth” (“ein evangelikaler Forschungsmythos,” p. 234).

My purpose in noting Winter’s and Merz’s work here is not to evaluate either, but simply to highlight the discussion. If students of the Pastorals are leaning heavily on Winter’s work in some particular project or if Winter’s thesis undergirds their understanding of the letters to any great extent, they will at least want to be aware of Merz’s substantial critique.

Van Nes, Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles

Cover Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles

Van Neste reviews van Nes. In the current issue of the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Ray Van Neste provides a 1000-word evaluation of the recent and important Jermo van Nes, Pauline Language and the Pastoral Epistles: A Study of Linguistic Variation in the Corpus Paulinum. Linguistic Biblical Studies 16. Leiden: Brill, 2018. [Brill description; N.B.! The very valuable appendices — over 250 pages worth of data — are open access through the Brill page: “Hapax Legomena in the Corpus Paulinum“; “Lexical Richness in the Corpus Paulinum“; “Missing Indeclinables in the Corpus Paulinum“; “Interclausal Relations in the Corpus Paulinum“; “Structure Irregularities in the Corpus Paulinum.” Not to mention van Nes’s extensive bibliography.]

“It would be difficult to overstate the significance of this contribution to the study of the Pastoral Epistles.”

Read the entire review here.

The Pastorals at SBL 2019

The program book for the 2019 SBL Annual Meeting reveals a robust selection of sessions related to the Pastorals, whether directly or indirectly. We’ve listed below pertinent sessions (alphabetically by presenter last name), with links to abstracts where available. Sessions which very directly engage the Pastorals are listed first, then a few sessions which have some pertinence for the letters but are not said to directly engage them.

Presentations directly related to the Pastorals

Jens Herzer, Universität Leipzig.
“Epicurus, Plutarch and Paul: The Philosophical Discourse on Public Life and the Transformation of Pauline Ethics in 1 Timothy.” (abstract)
Herzer has published prolifically on the Pastorals.

Christopher Hutson, Abilene Christian University
“Lifting the Yoke of Slavery: Infrapolitics and Advice to Enslaved Persons in the Pastoral Epistles.” (abstract)
Hutson’s Yale dissertation focused on the rhetoric of youth in the Pastorals; his roughly half-dozen essays on the letters have culminated this year in the volume on the Pastorals in the Paideia commentary series.

Donghyun Jeong, Emory University
“Ambiguous Prayers in 1 Timothy 2:1–2.” (abstract)

Lyn Kidson, Alphacrucis College
“Saving the Woman in 1 Timothy 2: Childbirth, Women’s Bodies, and the ‘Other Instruction.’” (abstract)
Kidson’s Macquarie dissertation focused on rhetorical strategies in 1 Timothy 1, and she has published other work on 1 Timothy. This session builds on her 2018 SBL presentation.

Myriam Klinker-De Klerck, Theologische Universiteit Kampen voor de Gereformeerde Kerken
“Lois, Eunice and Timothy. The Rhetorical Strategy in 2 Timothy in the Light of Social Exclusion of the First Christians.” (abstract)
Klinker-De Klerck’s published dissertation addressed ethics in 1 Timothy and Titus.

Andrew M. Langford, University of Oregon
“‘They pierced themselves with many pains’: Pain Experience and the Rhetoric of Self-Harm in 1 Timothy.” (abstract)
Langford’s recent University of Chicago dissertation examines the polemical use of contemporary philosophical and medical discourses in the Pastorals to stigmatize the opponents in the letters. He has previously presented on 1 Timothy at SBL.

Anna C. Miller, Xavier University
“The ‘Real Widow’ in the City: Widows, Public Space and Speech in 1 Timothy and the Acts of Thecla.” (abstract)
Miller has presented previously on the Pastorals at SBL.

W. Andrew Smith, Shepherds Theological Seminary and Steve Young, Shepherds Theological Seminary
“Great Expectations: Teststellen Efficacy for Byzantine Manuscripts of 1 Timothy.” (abstract)
Smith is presently working on the Pastorals in the Editio Critica Maior project.

Nebeyou Almeu Terefe, Wycliffe Ethiopia
“Some Notes on the Ge’ez/Ethiopic Manuscripts of 1 and 2 Timothy.” (abstract)
Terefe’s Addis Ababa University Ph.D. thesis is titled “Critical Edition of Pastoral Epistles with Their Andemta Tradition” and contributes to the textual history of Ethiopic biblical material.

James Buchanan Wallace, Christian Brothers University
“1 Timothy and Universal Salvation.” (abstract)

Tommy Wasserman, Ansgar Teologiske Høgskole and Conrad Thorup Elmelund, Københavns Universitet
“Second Timothy – When and Where? Text and Traditions in the Subscriptions.” (abstract)

Presentations indirectly related to the Pastorals

Jon-Paul Lapeña, Harvard Divinity School
“Contextualizing Paul’s Rhetoric of the μέθυσος: Attitudes Toward Drunkenness and its Stigma in the Early Imperial Period.” (abstract)
Though μέθυσος is not used in the Pastorals, this presentation likely has implications for the use of πάροινος in 1 Tim 3:3; Titus 1:7.

Troy W. Martin, Saint Xavier University
“Translating ὑποτάσσειν in the Petrine Station Code as Fitting In instead of Submission.” (abstract)
Martin has published on rhetoric in 1 Timothy and Titus. This presentation would have implications for the use of ὑποτάσσω in Titus 2:5, 9; 3:1.

Larry Perkins, Northwest Baptist Seminary, Langley, B.C. and Mr. Spencer Elliott, Trinity Western University.
“The Use of οἰκία/οἶκος in Greek Exodus: An Attempt to Understand Principles of Lexical Variation in Greek Exodus.” (abstract)
Perkins recently published the volume on the Pastorals in the BHGNT series. This presentation is pertinent to the Pastorals’ variance between οἶκος and οἰκία.

Richard A Rhodes, University of California-Berkeley
“Oikos, oikia and the Problem of Metonymy.” (abstract)
This presentation is pertinent to the Pastorals’ variance between οἶκος and οἰκία.

Tyler M. Schwaller, Wesleyan College (Macon, GA)
“White Fragility and Biblical Interpretation: The Case of Reading Paul on Slavery.” (abstract)
This presentation may have implications for reception history of 1 Tim 6:1-2; Titus 2:9-10.


Coming soon: Gerald Bray, The Pastoral Epistles, ITC

Media of The Pastoral Epistles: An International Theological Commentary

In an earlier post, we briefly mentioned Gerald Bray’s forthcoming volume on the Pastoral Epistles in the recently-begun International Theological Commentary (ITC) series. As the cover reveals, the ITC is a companion series to the well-known International Critical Commentary series, and like the ICC will cover both Old and New Testaments. Students of the Pastoral Epistles may rejoice that
the volume on these letters is one of the inaugural volumes in the ITC.

The publisher’s description page gives the release date as July 25, and Dr. Bray has confirmed this. He also provided a paragraph describing the volume, as follows:

“This commentary offers a verse-by-verse theological interpretation of the First and Second Epistles to Timothy and Titus. Bray reads the letters as authoritative Scripture, moving beyond questions of whether they are pseudonymous, and of whether or not they are post-Apostolic, looking closely at how they have been understood in the life of the Church. Bray engages with the history of commentary surrounding these letters, ranging from the Fathers of the Church to contemporary theology and exegesis. He reads the Epistles as the authoritative word from God to his people, and through his engagement with the history of interpretation shows the constant thread of witness and confession that unites believers across the ages. In so doing, Bray shows why the Pastoral Epistles have survived the passage of time and have retained the canonical authority that they have always enjoyed.”

The Pastorals in NTA 63.1 (2019)

The most recent issue of NTA is a treasure trove for new works on the Pastorals! Not a great deal in the way of journal articles, but plenty overall.

(5) Michel Gourgues, “Sur deux lectures féministes.” Science et Esprit 71.1 (2019): 113–23. In the first half of this review article, Gourgues examines A. B. Huizenga’s Wisdom Commentary volume 1-2 Timothy, Titus (2016) and its focus on texts concerning gender issues.

(265) James Greenbury, “The Contribution of 1 Timothy 2:8–15 and 1 Corinthians 11:5 to the Discussion concerning Women Speaking in Church.” Presbyterion 44.2 (2018): 52–76.

(266) J. Andrew Doole, “Was Timothy in Prison with Paul?” New Testament Studies 65.1 (2019): 59–77. [“no”]

(p. 137) The Paulist Bible Commentary. Edited by José Enrique Aguilar Chiu et al. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist, 2018. This one-volume commentary is unusual in having three different writers handle the Pastorals, each of them having published extensively on the letters: Thomas Söding on 1 Timothy, Michel Gourgues on 2 Timothy, and Michael Theobald on Titus.

(pp. 140-41) Ralph P. Martin and Carl N. Toney. New Testament Foundations: An Introduction for Students. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018. [note “The Pastorals and the Close of Paul’s Life,” pp. 539–57]

(pp. 142-43) Mitzi J. Smith, and Yung Suk Kim, “1–2 Timothy and Titus.” Pages 285–92 in Toward Decentering the New Testament: A Reintroduction. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018.

(pp. 159-60) Paul S. Jeon, 1 Timothy: A Charge to God’s Missional Household. 3 vols. Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2017.

(p. 161) Heinz Külling, Mann und Frau, Eltern und Kindern als Bewohner ihres Hauses in den Pastoralbriefen. Zurich: Theologischer Verlag Zurich, 2017.

(pp. 162-63) Karl Müller, Paulus’ Gefangenschaften das Ende der Apostelgeschichte und die Pastoralbriefe. Bibelstudien 19. Munster: LIT, 2018. [TOC] [note the focus on the Pastorals on pp. 59-84]

(pp. 164-165) Receptions of Paul in Early Christianity: The Person of Paul and His Writings Through the Eyes of His Early Interpreters. Edited by Jens Schröter, Simon Butticaz, and Andreas Dettwiler. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 234. Berlin: de Gruyter, 2018. [TOC] In this volume, note esp. Lukas Bormann, “Biographie und Rhetorik: Das Paulusbild der Deuteropaulinen” (pp. 143–74); Jens Herzer, “Paulustradition Und Paulusrezeption In Den Pastoralbriefen” (pp. 487–518); Outi Lehtipuu, “Apostolic Authority and Women in Second-Century Christianity” (pp. 607-22).

(pp. 166-67) Anthony C. Thiselton, Puzzling Passages in Paul: Forty Conundrums Calmly Considered. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2018. [note “Should women not be permitted to speak?,” pp. 55–63; “Can childbearing ever relate to salvation?,” pp. 72–77; “Is the epistle to Titus incurably racist?,” pp. 117–22]

(p. 169) Craig L. Blomberg, A New Testament Theology. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2018. [note chap. 8, “The Pastoral Epistles,” pp. 455–95]

(p. 171) Anne-Cathy Graber and Blandine Lagrut, “Sauvée par la maternité? Si Marie avait lu la letter à Timothée.” Pages 249–68 in Une bible des femmes: Vingt théologiennes relisent des textes controversés. Edited by Élisabeth Parmentier, Pierrette Daviau, and Lauriane Savoy. Geneva: Labor et Fides, 2018.

(p. 178) Mona Tokerek LaFosse, “Those Who Hear: The Power of Learners in 1 Timothy.” Pages 147–70 in Religions and Education in Antiquity: Studies in Honour of Michel Desjardins. Edited by Alex Damm. Numen: Studies in the History of Religions 160. Leiden: Brill, 2018.

(p. 192) Hans-Ulrich Weidemann, “Zwei gegen einen. Die ‘Idee des Mose’ im 2. Timotheusbrief.” Pages 253–78 in Mosebilder: Gedanken zur Rezeption einer literarischen Figur im Frühjudentum, frühen Christentum und der römisch-hellenistischen Literatur. Edited by Michael Sommer, et al. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 390. Tübingen, Mohr Siebeck 2017.