Locating Potential Quotes, Allusions, or References

I’ve blogged a bit (and still have more to blog) about linkages (be they quotes, allusions, or references) between the Pastorals and the Apostolic Fathers.

My purpose is twofold: First, obviously, is to explore areas where potential dependence of the AF on the NT has been posited. But second is to try to understand the criteria by which these dependencies are posited.

One thing you may have noticed (if you’ve actually read the posts) is that dependence seems posited on the basis of a catchword or two combined with general topical/contextual agreement.

I’ve recently become interested in locating potential areas of dependence without having to read and comprehensively know both corpora, and I’m not interested in poring over the details of concordances. Running all sorts of searches is also a bit of a downer. So I figured I’d experiment a bit with writing a script or two to do some comparisons en masse.

My initial comparisons have been between the Pastorals and First Clement. This is because I have several data points already for First Clement: The New Testament in the Apostolic Fathers; as well as Hagner’s work on the Old and New Testament in First Clement; and also Lightfoot’s two volumes on First Clement. This means I can at least check what I find against a super-set of data where others have already posited linkages.

The script I wrote is currently fairly simple: find references where both corpora share four-consecutive-word lemma strings, with the lemmas in any order. There are problems with this, but initial results were interesting. They are listed in brief below. I have some other ideas on how to sharpen and expand results; as I experiment I may post more info here.

Cruddy Matches

  • 1Ti 2.2 => 1Cl 27.4.
  • 1Ti 6.1 => 1Cl 42.2; 56.1. The phrase can be loosely translated “of God and the”.
  • 1Ti 6.17 => 1Cl 13.1.
  • 2Ti 1.3 => 1Cl 50.3. Dueling senses of χαρις; NT “I thank God” vs AF according to “the grace of God they have”.
  • 2Ti 3.17 => 1Cl 33.5. NT “the man of God” to AF “God [created] man”.
  • 2Ti 4.18 => 1Cl 17.2. NT “to him be the glory” to AF “at the glory [of God]”
  • 2Ti 4.8 => 1Cl 49.6.

Decent Matches

  • 1Ti 1.14 => 1Cl 65.2. “the grace of our Lord” as something that is possessed or given.
  • 1Ti 1.17; 2Ti 4.18 => 2Cl 20.12; 32.4; 38.4; 43.6; 45.7; 45.8; 50.7; 58.2; 61.3; 64.1; 65.2. This is a general benediction “… forever and ever, amen”. Some have the addition, “to him be the glory, forever and ever, amen”; but not all.
  • 1Ti 3.13; 2Ti 3.15 => 1Cl 22.1. “faith in Christ”; a unique and perhaps Pauline concept? Maybe not to these points in the Pastorals, but I’d guess it does go back to Paul.
  • 1Ti 5.18 => 1Cl 34.6; 35.7. This is a variant of the quotation formula, “For the Scripture says:”. Clement quotes OT frequently, so it is not surprising to see this formula appear — certainly no direct reference to the Pastorals here.
  • 1Ti 6.3 => 1Cl 13.1. “words of the/our Lord Jesus”. The PE use this as the basis of sound doctrine (does it agree with Jesus? It’s sound); Clement urges rememberance of “the words of the Lord Jesus” for similar reasons.
  • 2Ti 1.14 => 1Cl 63.2. Prepositional phrase “through the Holy Spirit” matches, but the context is different, and the phrase is generic enough to not need source.
  • 2Ti 2.9; Tt 2.5 => 1Cl 42.3. “the word of God” used with similar import.
  • 2Ti 4.14 => 1Cl 34.3. The phrase is somewhat stereotypical, “according to his works”, but here NT speaks of punishment and AF speaks of reward. Perhaps the better NT reference is Re 22.12.
  • Tt 3.6 => 1Cl 50.7; 59.3. “though Jesus Christ” is a generic phrase; so the match is not surprising.
  • Tt 2.11 => 1Cl 8.1; 50.3; 55.3. “the grace of God”, though the phrase is common and the words occur in differing orders and cases.

Impressive Matches

  • 1Ti 2.7 => 1Cl 60.4. Though this could also be somewhat related to Ps 145.18[LXX 144.18]. Holmes notes 1Ti 2.7 as an xref in his edition.
  • 2Ti 2.21 => 1Cl 2.7. Though most note the parallel is more likely to Titus 3.1 (both Holmes and Lightfoot note this), which differs in preposition).


There is also a group of parallels sharing words like lord/jesus/christ along with pronouns, articles and prepositions:

  • NT: 1Ti 1.1, 2, 12, 14; 5.21; 6.3, 14, 15; 2Ti 1.2, 3; 2.2; 4.1; Tt 1.4; 2.14
  • AF: 1Cl 12.5; 16.2; 20.11, 12; 21.6; 24.1; 36.1; 38.1; 42.1; 42.3; 44.1; 46.7; 49.6; 50.7; 58.2; 59.4; 64.1; 65.2;


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