Second Timothy 1.8-12

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB]

Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 1.8-12

8 μὴ οὖν ἐπαισχυνθῇς τὸ μαρτύριον τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν
8 And so do not be ashamed of the testimony about our Lord,
    μηδὲ ἐμὲ τὸν δέσμιον αὐτοῦ,
    or of me his prisoner,
ἀλλὰ συγκακοπάθησον τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ
but suffer together with me for the gospel
    κατὰ δύναμιν θεοῦ,
    according to the power of God,
        9 τοῦ σώσαντος ἡμᾶς καὶ καλέσαντος κλήσει ἁγίᾳ,
        9 who saved us and called us with a holy calling,
            οὐ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα ἡμῶν
            not according to our works
            ἀλλὰ κατὰ ἰδίαν πρόθεσιν καὶ χάριν,
            but according to his own purpose and grace,
                τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν
                which has been granted to us
                    ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ
                    in Christ Jesus
                    πρὸ χρόνων αἰωνίων,
                    from times eternal,
                10 φανερωθεῖσαν δὲ νῦν
                10 and now has been revealed
                    διὰ τῆς ἐπιφανείας τοῦ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ,
                    through the appearance of our Savior Christ Jesus,
                    καταργήσαντος μὲν τὸν θάνατον
                    who indeed abolished death
                    φωτίσαντος δὲ ζωὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν
                    and brought to light life and immortality
                        διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου
                        through the gospel
                            11 εἰς ὃ ἐτέθην ἐγὼ κῆρυξ καὶ ἀπόστολος καὶ διδάσκαλος,
                            11 into which I was appointed herald and apostle and teacher.

12 διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν καὶ ταῦτα πάσχω·
12 For this reason I also suffer these things,
ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐπαισχύνομαι,
but I am not ashamed,
    οἶδα γὰρ ᾧ πεπίστευκα
    for I know whom I have believed
    καὶ πέπεισμαι
    and I am convinced
        ὅτι δυνατός ἐστιν τὴν παραθήκην μου φυλάξαι
        that he is quite capable to guard my deposit
            εἰς ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν.
            until that day.


Verse 8

οὖν] Typically translated "therefore", this usually relies on preceding context and signals a shift to distillation of a principle or inference (cf. Runge, LDGNT Glossary, "principle"). Thus, based on vv. 6-7, the action specified in v. 8 is appropriate.

μὴ .. μηδὲ] "not … neither". Note the negation structure. "Do not be ashamed of … neither [be ashamed of] …" Several times, negatives will point to an upcoming contrast. This portion sets one side of the contrast ("Don’t be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, neither [be ashamed of] me his prisoner"); it will be contrasted with the item that Paul desires to make prominent.

ἀλλὰ] "but", specifying the second portion (thus the more prominent portion of) the contrast. Instead of being ashamed (thus denying or ignoring) the testimony of the Lord; instead of being ashamed of Paul, Paul invites Timothy to join with him to "suffer together with me" for the gospel.

κατὰ δύναμιν θεοῦ] prepositional phrase, reminding of the power given by God, stated in v. 7 above.

Verse 9

τοῦ σώσαντος ἡμᾶς καὶ καλέσαντος κλήσει ἁγίᾳ] participial clause functioning like a relative clause with immediately previous θεοῦ (God) as antecedent; "who saved us and called us with a holy calling".

οὐ κατὰ .. ἀλλὰ κατὰ] here prepositional phrases are contrasted with some correction. In this extended structure (based on a relative clause), Paul reminds Timothy that God does not call based on one’s own works but instead calls "according to his own purpose and grace". As such, this is somewhat reminiscent of Titus 3.5.

τὴν δοθεῖσαν ἡμῖν] another participial clause, again functioning like a relative clause ("which has been granted to us") which takes preceding "grace" as antecedent. This is followed by two prepositional phrases, each providing further circumstance to the action "being granted".

Verse 10

φανερωθεῖσαν δὲ νῦν] φανερωθεῖσαν (has been revealed) matches the preceding δοθεῖσαν (has been granted). Note also the temporal contrast between the preceding "from times eternal" with the current "now". Here δὲ is the hinge of the contrast, and as with other contrasts, the second portion (after δὲ) is the more prominent/salient. The grace had been granted from times eternal, but now it has been revealed. This is followed by a prepositional phrase providing circumstance to how the revealing has taken place.

καταργήσαντος μὲν .. φωτίσαντος δὲ] a somewhat standard μὲν/δὲ structure, again highlighting contrast, this time between death and "life and immortality". Again, note how "life and immortality" are highlighted by the structure.

διὰ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου] prepositional phrase, modifying the previous participle (brought to light … through the gospel)

Verse 11

εἰς ὃ ἐτέθην ἐγὼ] prepositional phrase with relative clause as its object, "into which I was appointed". This is referencing the gospel (cf. Marshall). Also see 1Ti 2.7, which has similar language.

Verse 12

διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν] In the translation, I’ve rendered this as starting a new sentence, even though NA27 punctuation does not indicate this. Here I follow Marshall (Pastoral Epistles (ICC), p. 708). The repeated transitional phrase (cf. 2Ti 1.6) is to attractive to me and I can’t ignore it, particularly since I see this as the end of a minor section/clause group. The repetition of the same phrase from verse 6, plus the reactivation of the concept of suffering (cf. 2Ti 1.8, "don’t be ashamed … but suffer together with me") speak for this reading, from my perspective.

ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐπαισχύνομαι] "but I am not ashamed" another contrast with ἀλλὰ; here again recalling vocabulary from 2Ti 1.8 (v. 8 μὴ ἐπαισχυνθῇς). Unlike v. 8, here not being ashamed is actually the salient part.

οἶδα γὰρ ᾧ πεπίστευκα] "for I know whom I have believed", here offering support for the position of not being ashamed. After the declaration of not being ashamed, Paul explains further why he is not ashamed.

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