Second Timothy 3.10-13

[This is part of a running series on translating Second Timothy. See the introductory post for more information — RB] 


Phrasing/Translation: 2Ti 3.10-13



10 Σὺ δὲ παρηκολούθησάς
10 Now you have followed
    μου τῇ διδασκαλίᾳ,
    my teaching,
    τῇ ἀγωγῇ,
    conduct,
    τῇ προθέσει,
    purpose,
    τῇ πίστει,
    faith,
    τῇ μακροθυμίᾳ,
    patience,
    τῇ ἀγάπῃ,
    love,
    τῇ ὑπομονῇ,
    endurance,
    11 τοῖς διωγμοῖς,
    11 in the persecutions,
    τοῖς παθήμασιν,
    the sufferings,
    οἷά μοι ἐγένετο
    like those I suffered
        ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ,
        in Antioch,
        ἐν Ἰκονίῳ,
        in Iconium,
        ἐν Λύστροις,
        and in Lystra.


οἵους διωγμοὺς ὑπήνεγκα
What sufferings I endured,
        καὶ ἐκ πάντων με ἐρρύσατο ὁ κύριος.
        and out of them all the Lord rescued me!


12 καὶ πάντες δὲ οἱ θέλοντες εὐσεβῶς ζῆν
12 Now, even all who desire to live in a godly manner
    ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ
    in Christ Jesus
διωχθήσονται.
will be persecuted.


13 πονηροὶ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καὶ γόητες προκόψουσιν
13 But evil men and swindlers will progress
    ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον
    into worse,
    πλανῶντες καὶ πλανώμενοι.
    deceiving and being deceived.


Comments


The unit is 2Ti 3.10-17. NA27 insert a subparagraph break after 2Ti 3.13, this seems a decent point to break the comments for this unit.


Verse 10


Σὺ δὲ παρηκολούθησάς] The connective δὲ indicates development from the previous major section; here we have contrast between sections as well. The previous section was about the false teachers and the impotence of their teaching; here we have a contrast with Paul’s teaching, which Timothy has followed. Note also the superfluous pronoun Σὺ, here fronted in the clause. This activates Timothy again, bringing him into focus in the discussion. The topic has shifted from those pursuing and purveying false doctrine to Timothy, who pursues and purveys Paul’s true doctrine.


virtue list vv. 10-11a] all datives, each with article; note v. 11a involves plurals.


Verse 11


οἷά μοι ἐγένετο] relative clause, here likely explaining the content of the virtue list above.


ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ, ἐν Ἰκονίῳ, ἐν Λύστροις] three prepositional phrases, these provide examples known to Timothy as reference points for the type of things included in the virtue list.


οἵους διωγμοὺς ὑπήνεγκα] another relative clause; while ambiguous my reading (agreeing with Marshall, ICC 785) sees this as a new clausal unit summarizing Paul’s situations and proclaiming glory to God. OpenText.org see this as a dependent clause with one succeeding dependent clause ending the structure began in v. 10.


καὶ] additive, simple connection between the two short clauses.


ἐκ πάντων] fronted prepositional phrase within the dependent clause, here giving extra attention to “out of all of them”, referring to the persecutions endured.


με ἐρρύσατο ὁ κύριος] The constituent order of this clause (after the fronted prepositional phrase) is Object-Verb-Subject which is simply not normal. The object is the personal pronoun με (“me”, referring to Paul, the one rescued by the Lord). The subject, at the end of the clause, is “the Lord”. Shifting the order of the pronoun makes the progress of the clause easier, “out of all of those persecutions, it was me that the Lord rescued.”


Verse 12


καὶ πάντες δὲ] Here δὲ is the discourse connective, again marking development. I’ve translated it “but”. καὶ is adverbial, modifying πάντες. Instead of the typical “also”, I’ve translated as “even”, which seems better for the context.


οἱ θέλοντες εὐσεβῶς ζῆν] The participle (with article) functions substantivally, so functions as the subject of the clause. However, the participle is also modified by infinitive verb,* the infinitive also being modified adverbially; “who desire to live in a godly manner” (or perhaps “reverently”).


ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ] prepositional phrase, also modifying the infinitive: “to live … in Christ Jesus”.


διωχθήσονται] primary verb of the clause; everything else (apart from the discourse connective δε) is essentially part of the subject.


Verse 13


πονηροὶ δὲ ἄνθρωποι καὶ γόητες προκόψουσιν] Again, δε used as the discourse connective, marking development. The subject is fronted; Paul has shifted topics. The verb is future tense.


ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον] prepositional phrase; noting the direction of the progress of the “evil men and swindlers”: they will get worse.


πλανῶντες καὶ πλανώμενοι] Two single-word participial clauses joined by καὶ. These are the same word; each in a different voice (the first active, the second passive). The effect is to show that the deception that continues to plunge these false teachers into the depths of darkness has a reciprocal effect: It damns those who teach; and those teachers continue to spew forth the false teaching. The are deceiving themselves and their hearers (cf. 1Ti 4.16; also $af(2Cl 15.1); $af(2Cl 19.1) but even more so $af(2Cl 10.5) and $af(IgnEph 16.2), which have the formulation in the negative).





* The phenomenon of an articular, substantive participle being modified by an infinitive verb occurs 18x in the NT: Mt 19.12; Mk 10.42; Lk 16.26; 20.35; Jn 1.33; Ac 22.29; Ro 2.21, 22; 15.12; 1Co 10.12; Php 2.13 (2x); 1Ti 6.9; 2Ti 3.12; 1Pe 3.10; 1Jn 2.6, 9; 2Jn 11. (references from a syntax search of the OpenText.org material in Logos Bible Software) The order is always the same.

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